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GS2-M medium citation list
GS2-M medium is a defined, serum-free cell culture medium for deriving, maintaining, and propagating human and mouse pluripotent stem cells. The medium utilizes a two small molecule inhibitor-based method (2i), which blocks ERK (PD184352), and GSK3 (CHIR99021). This technique blocks differentiation-inducing signals and promotes cell survival. Additionally, it can be supplemented with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) to convert partially reprogrammed cells to full pluripotency. This method is a powerful way to keep pluripotent stem cells in a basal, ground-state that enables germline-competency. Read below for a citation list of studies in which GS2-M medium was used in peer-reviewed basic, translational, preclinical, and biomedical research.
Chan, Y.-S. et al. Induction of a human pluripotent state with distinct regulatory circuitry that resembles preimplantation epiblast. Cell Stem Cell 13, 663–75 (2013).
Cerulo, L. et al. Identification of a novel gene signature of ES cells self-renewal fluctuation through system-wide analysis. PLoS One 9, e83235 (2014).
Chen, Y., Blair, K. & Smith, A. Robust self-renewal of rat embryonic stem cells requires fine-tuning of glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition. Stem cell reports 1, 209–17 (2013).
Faunes, F. et al. A membrane-associated β-catenin/Oct4 complex correlates with ground-state pluripotency in mouse embryonic stem cells. Development 140, 1171–83 (2013).
Ficz, G. et al. FGF signaling inhibition in ESCs drives rapid genome-wide demethylation to the epigenetic ground state of pluripotency. Cell Stem Cell 13, 351–9 (2013).
Gafni, O. et al. Derivation of novel human ground state naive pluripotent stem cells. Nature 504, 282–6 (2013).
Gao, Y. et al. Optimization of culture conditions for maintaining porcine induced pluripotent stem cells. DNA Cell Biol. 33, 1–11 (2014).
Gu, Q. et al. Rapid conversion of human ESCs into mouse ESC-like pluripotent state by optimizing culture conditions. Protein Cell 3, 71–9 (2012).
Habibi, E. et al. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of two distinct interconvertible DNA methylomes of mouse embryonic stem cells. Cell Stem Cell 13, 360–9 (2013).
Hackett, J. A. et al. Synergistic mechanisms of DNA demethylation during transition to ground-state pluripotency. Stem cell reports 1, 518–31 (2013).
Hanna, J. et al. Human embryonic stem cells with biological and epigenetic characteristics similar to those of mouse ESCs. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107, 9222–7 (2010).
Harris, D., Huang, B. & Oback, B. Inhibition of MAP2K and GSK3 signaling promotes bovine blastocyst development and epiblast-associated expression of pluripotency factors. Biol. Reprod. 88, 74 (2013).
Hassani, S.-N. et al. Inhibition of TGFβ signaling promotes ground state pluripotency. Stem Cell Rev. 10, 16–30 (2014).
Huang, B. et al. A virus-free poly-promoter vector induces pluripotency in quiescent bovine cells under chemically defined conditions of dual kinase inhibition. PLoS One 6, e24501 (2011).
Horie, K. et al. A homozygous mutant embryonic stem cell bank applicable for phenotype-driven genetic screening. Nat. Methods 8, 1071–7 (2011).
Jasnos, L., Aksoy, F. B., Hersi, H. M., Wantuch, S. & Sawado, T. Identifying division symmetry of mouse embryonic stem cells: negative impact of DNA methyltransferases on symmetric self-renewal. Stem cell reports 1, 360–9 (2013).
Jiang, M.-G. et al. Generation of transgenic rats through induced pluripotent stem cells. J. Biol. Chem. 288, 27150–8 (2013).
Kim, H. et al. Modulation of β-catenin function maintains mouse epiblast stem cell and human embryonic stem cell self-renewal. Nat. Commun. 4, 2403 (2013).
Leeb, M. & Wutz, A. Derivation of haploid embryonic stem cells from mouse embryos. Nature 479, 131–4 (2011).
Leitch, H. G. et al. Naive pluripotency is associated with global DNA hypomethylation. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 20, 311–6 (2013).
Leitch, H. G. et al. Rebuilding pluripotency from primordial germ cells. Stem cell reports 1, 66–78 (2013).
Malaver-Ortega, L. F., Sumer, H., Liu, J. & Verma, P. J. The state of the art for pluripotent stem cells derivation in domestic ungulates. Theriogenology 78, 1749–62 (2012).
Marks, H. et al. The transcriptional and epigenomic foundations of ground state pluripotency. Cell 149, 590–604 (2012).
Masuda, S., Li, M. & Izpisua Belmonte, J. C. Niche-less maintenance of HSCs by 2i. Cell Res. 23, 458–9 (2013).
Martello, G., Bertone, P. & Smith, A. Identification of the missing pluripotency mediator downstream of leukaemia inhibitory factor. EMBO J. 32, 2561–74 (2013).
Masuda, S. et al. Chemically induced pluripotent stem cells (CiPSCs): a transgene-free approach. J. Mol. Cell Biol. 5, 354–5 (2013).
McEwen, K. R., Leitch, H. G., Amouroux, R. & Hajkova, P. The impact of culture on epigenetic properties of pluripotent stem cells and pre-implantation embryos. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 41, 711–9 (2013).
Meek, S. et al. Tuning of β-catenin activity is required to stabilize self-renewal of rat embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells 31, 2104–15 (2013).
Men, H. & Bryda, E. C. Derivation of a germline competent transgenic Fischer 344 embryonic stem cell line. PLoS One 8, e56518 (2013).
Merkl, C. et al. Efficient generation of rat induced pluripotent stem cells using a non-viral inducible vector. PLoS One 8, e55170 (2013).
Morgani, S. M. et al. Totipotent embryonic stem cells arise in ground-state culture conditions. Cell Rep. 3, 1945–57 (2013).
Nagy, K. et al. Induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from equine fibroblasts. Stem Cell Rev. 7, 693–702 (2011).
Nakanoh, S., Okazaki, K. & Agata, K. Inhibition of MEK and GSK3 supports ES cell-like domed colony formation from avian and reptile embryos. Zoolog. Sci. 30, 543–52 (2013).
Nichols, J. et al. Validated germline-competent embryonic stem cell lines from nonobese diabetic mice. Nat. Med. 15, 814–8 (2009).
Peng, X. et al. Germ-line-competent embryonic stem cells of the Chinese Kunming mouse strain with long-term self-renewal ability. Cell. Reprogram. 15, 179–84 (2013).
Radzisheuskaya, A. et al. A defined Oct4 level governs cell state transitions of pluripotency entry and differentiation into all embryonic lineages. Nat. Cell Biol. 15, 579–90 (2013).
Raggioli, A., Junghans, D., Rudloff, S. & Kemler, R. Beta-catenin is vital for the integrity of mouse embryonic stem cells. PLoS One 9, e86691 (2014).
Rais, Y. et al. Deterministic direct reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotency. Nature 502, 65–70 (2013).
Roode, M. et al. Human hypoblast formation is not dependent on FGF signalling. Dev. Biol. 361, 358–63 (2012).
Sanchez-Ripoll, Y. et al. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition enhances translation of pluripotency-associated transcription factors to contribute to maintenance of mouse embryonic stem cell self-renewal. PLoS One 8, e60148 (2013).
Silva, J. et al. Promotion of reprogramming to ground state pluripotency by signal inhibition. PLoS Biol. 6, e253 (2008).
Silva, J. et al. Nanog is the gateway to the pluripotent ground state. Cell 138, 722–37 (2009).
Stuart, H. T. et al. NANOG amplifies STAT3 activation and they synergistically induce the naive pluripotent program. Curr. Biol. 24, 340–6 (2014).
Takashima, Y. et al. Resetting transcription factor control circuitry toward ground-state pluripotency in human. Cell 158, 1254–69 (2014).
Telugu, B. P. V. L. et al. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-dependent, pluripotent stem cells established from inner cell mass of porcine embryos. J. Biol. Chem. 286, 28948–53 (2011).
Theunissen, T. W. et al. Reprogramming capacity of Nanog is functionally conserved in vertebrates and resides in a unique homeodomain. Development 138, 4853–65 (2011).
Tsutsui, H. et al. An optimized small molecule inhibitor cocktail supports long-term maintenance of human embryonic stem cells. Nat. Commun. 2, 167 (2011).
Verma, V., Huang, B., Kallingappa, P. K. & Oback, B. Dual kinase inhibition promotes pluripotency in finite bovine embryonic cell lines. Stem Cells Dev. 22, 1728–42 (2013).
Wang, W. et al. Rapid and efficient reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells by retinoic acid receptor gamma and liver receptor homolog 1. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108, 18283–8 (2011).
Ware, C. B. et al. Derivation of naive human embryonic stem cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111, 4484–9 (2014).
Wray, J. et al. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 alleviates Tcf3 repression of the pluripotency network and increases embryonic stem cell resistance to differentiation. Nat. Cell Biol. 13, 838–45 (2011).
Yamaji, M. et al. PRDM14 ensures naive pluripotency through dual regulation of signaling and epigenetic pathways in mouse embryonic stem cells. Cell Stem Cell 12, 368–82 (2013).
Ye, S., Li, P., Tong, C. & Ying, Q.-L. Embryonic stem cell self-renewal pathways converge on the transcription factor Tfcp2l1. EMBO J. 32, 2548–60 (2013).
Yu, J., Chau, K. F., Vodyanik, M. A., Jiang, J. & Jiang, Y. Efficient feeder-free episomal reprogramming with small molecules. PLoS One 6, e17557 (2011).
Zhang, Y. et al. Efficient reprogramming of naïve-like induced pluripotent stem cells from porcine adipose-derived stem cells with a feeder-independent and serum-free system. PLoS One 9, e85089 (2014).
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